Papers that do not follow submission guidelines will be returned for reformatting by the submitting author. Please prepare your manuscript before submission, using the following guidelines:
Article files should be provided in Microsoft Word format. LaTex files can be used if an accompanying PDF document is provided. PDF as a sole file type is not accepted, a PDF must be accompanied by the source file. Acceptable figure file types are listed further below.
Articles should be about 8000 words in length. This includes all text including references and appendices. Please allow 280 words for each figure or table.
A title of not more than eight words should be provided.
All contributing authors’ names should be added to the submission, and their names arranged in the correct order for publication.
Correct email addresses should be supplied for each author in their separate author accounts
The full name of each author must be present in their author account in the exact format they should appear for publication, including or excluding any middle names or initials as required
The affiliation of each contributing author should be correct in their individual author account. The affiliation listed should be where they were based at the time that the research for the paper was conducted
Authors who wish to include these items should save them together in an MS Word file to be uploaded with the submission. If they are to be included, a brief professional biography of not more than 100 words should be supplied for each named author.
Authors must declare all sources of external research funding in their article and a statement to this effect should appear in the Acknowledgements section. Authors should describe the role of the funder or financial sponsor in the entire research process, from study design to submission.
Authors must supply a structured abstract in their submission, set out under 4-7 sub-headings (see our "How to... write an abstract" guide for practical help and guidance):
Research limitations/implications (if applicable)
Practical implications (if applicable)
Social implications (if applicable)
Maximum is 250 words in total (including keywords and article classification, see below).
Authors should provide appropriate and short keywords in the submission that encapsulate the principal topics of the paper (see the How to... ensure your article is highly downloaded guide for practical help and guidance on choosing search-engine friendly keywords). The maximum number of keywords is 12.
Authors must categorize their paper as part of the submission process. The category which most closely describes their paper should be selected from the list below.
Headings must be concise, with a clear indication of the distinction between the hierarchy of headings.
Notes or Endnotes should be used only if absolutely necessary and must be identified in the text by consecutive numbers, enclosed in square brackets and listed at the end of the article.
All Figures (charts, diagrams, line drawings, web pages/screenshots, and photographic images) should be submitted in electronic form.
Figures created in MS Word, MS PowerPoint, MS Excel, Illustrator should be supplied in their native formats. Electronic figures created in other applications should be copied from the origination software and pasted into a blank MS Word document or saved and imported into an MS Word document or alternatively create a .pdf file from the origination software.
Figures which cannot be supplied as above are acceptable in the standard image formats which are: .pdf, .ai, and .eps. If you are unable to supply graphics in these formats then please ensure they are .tif, .jpeg, or .bmp at a resolution of at least 300dpi and at least 10cm wide.
To prepare web pages/screenshots simultaneously press the "Alt" and "Print screen" keys on the keyboard, open a blank Microsoft Word document and simultaneously press "Ctrl" and "V" to paste the image. (Capture all the contents/windows on the computer screen to paste into MS Word, by simultaneously pressing "Ctrl" and "Print screen".)
Photographic images should be submitted electronically and of high quality. They should be saved as .tif or .jpeg files at a resolution of at least 300dpi and at least 10cm wide. Digital camera settings should be set at the highest resolution/quality possible.
Tables should be typed and included in a separate file to the main body of the article. The position of each table should be clearly labelled in the body text of article with corresponding labels being clearly shown in the separate file.
References to other publications must be in Harvard style and carefully checked for completeness, accuracy and consistency. This is very important in an electronic environment because it enables your readers to exploit the Reference Linking facility on the database and link back to the works you have cited through CrossRef.
Surname, Initials (year), Title of Book, Publisher, Place of publication.
For book chapters
Surname, Initials (year), "Chapter title", Editor's Surname, Initials, Title of Book, Publisher, Place of publication, pages.
Surname, Initials (year), "Title of article", Journal Name, volume issue, pages.
Surname, Initials (year of publication), "Title of paper", in Surname, Initials (Ed.), Title of published proceeding which may include place and date(s) held, Publisher, Place of publication, Page numbers.
Surname, Initials (year), "Title of paper", paper presented at Name of Conference, date of conference, place of conference, available at: URL if freely available on the internet (accessed date).
For working papers
Surname, Initials (year), "Title of article", working paper [number if available], Institution or organization, Place of organization, date.
For encyclopedia entries
Title of Encyclopedia (year) "Title of entry", volume, edition, Title of Encyclopedia, Publisher, Place of publication, pages.
Surname, Initials (year), "Article title", Newspaper, date, pages.
Newspaper (year), "Article title", date, pages.
For archival or other unpublished sources
Surname, Initials, (year), "Title of document", Unpublished Manuscript, collection name, inventory record, name of archive, location of archive.
For electronic sources
If available online, the full URL should be supplied at the end of the reference, as well as a date that the resource was accessed.
Surname, Initials (year), Title of Data Set, Name of data repository, available at: Persistent URL
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